WKD - Garden (niwa)


for garden KIGO, see below.


Daruma Pilgrims Gallery


Japanese Gardens 日本の庭園
Nihon no Tei-en (teien)

Japanese Gardens ... much has been written about them.
There is a difference between a Zen garden, usually in a temple, and a private garden or park, made for a Daimyo or a rich merchant.

My friend Mark has the details
Rock Gardens, Dry Landscapes, Hill Gardens
Karesansui, Kasan, Tsukiyama, Others

Mark Schumacher about Japanese Gardens !

Here is a short list of some articles I have produced so far.

park, tei-en 庭園
garden, niwa 庭


Garden in Takahashi

Kobori Enshu 小堀遠州 (1579 - 1647)

Stone Garden in Takahashi

Takahashi, Temple Yakushi-In 薬師院

going in circles
the mind
the sand

© Gabi Greve, Spring 2008

Tofukuji Temple (toofukuji 東福寺)
and master gardener Shigemori Mirei 重森三玲

Shunmyo Masuno, Zen Garden Master
禅庭氏 増野

Koraku-En in Okayama (Koorakuen 後楽園 )

Tsuyama Park PHOTOS


External LINKS

The Sakuteiki, or "Records of Garden Making,"
was written nearly 1000 years ago, making it the oldest work on Japanese gardening; in fact, the oldest book on gardening in the world! In this edition of the Sakuteiki, the authors provide both an English-language translation of this classic work; and an introduction to the cultural and historical context that led to the development of Japanese gardening.

Visions of the Japanese Garden:

A Modern Translation of Japan's Gardening Classic
by Jiro Takei, Marc Peter Keane

A Japanese court noble wrote the Sakuteiki during the Heian period (794-1184). During this critical era in Japanese history cultural influences on poetry, clothing-and gardening-that had been imported from China and Korea over the previous centuries were reexamined and reinterpreted into their unique Japanese forms. The Sakuteiki contains the first systematic record of this new gardening style-with both technical advice on gardening-building (much of which is still followed in today's Japanese gardens) and an examination of the four central threads of allegorical meaning which were integral features of Heian-era garden design.
source : www.goodreads.com


"The Beauty of the Japanese Garden"

The Japanese garden evolved from the landscaping of gardens and it developed into an original art form to become an important part of the Japanese culture. The art of Japanese garden is closely associated with the art of architecture and the stone arrangement which are the integral part of the comprehensive art of gardens. History of the Japanese garden goes back to around 7th century and the early documents about the design of gardens are from approximately the 10th century.

From the ancient remains of the rock arrangement ( of the AD 5th century ) we seem to find some likely resemblance in the existing Japanese gardens. They are the circular layout of rocks either flat or upright found in Akita and Hokkaido. However, it appears that they were used for the spiritual rituals and not designed for as stone arrangement for the beauty of gardens. It may be fair to say that the concept of gardens were yet premature in this period.

Although these early circular stones or other rocks that are jutting out in the cliff were the objects of worship and prayer for the spirits of nature, such spiritual foundation for the stones continued to sublimate in the later art form of stone arrangement and gardens. In the transition process from 7th century to 10th century, Buddhism and new cultures were brought in from China and Korea and they played important roles in the development of garden art. They became the philosophical foundation for the original design of the Japanese art of space in the form of gardens.

In the background of the design and rock arrangements of the Japanese garden there is a respect for the nature and abstract representations of the utopian world of the time which were derived from the religion and philosophy. Therefore, the Japanese gardens use natural stones, only without any artificial processing. They are arranged to show many expressions of sometimes dynamic forms and other times extremely subtle and sensitive forms. These gardens give many impressions to those who appreciate them and they move people in various ways. This is the evidence that the designers of the Japanese gardens of different times had extremely sophisticated sense of beauty and aestheticity.

In the following section we will see the Japanese gardens from different historical period and appreciate their beauty and the designs of arrangements.
(Translated by Mr.Shigeru Komori.)
© "The Basics of the Japanese Garden Elements"


Japanese Garden Dictionary

A Glossary for Japanese Gardens and Their History
Compiled and Edited by ONO Kenkichi and Walter EDWARDS

Welcome to the Bowdoin College web site
on Japanese gardens
The web site is dedicated to the gardens of Japan, and primarily to the historic gardens of Kyoto and its environs, including Nara.


......................... H A I K U

KIGO of the category EARTH

kigo for all spring

. haru no niwa 春の庭(はるのにわ garden in spring
haru no sono 春の園 (はるのその) garden or park in spring
shunen, shun-en春 春園(しゅんえん)
..... shun-en 春苑(しゅんえん)


kigo for all summer

. natsu no niwa 夏の庭 (なつのにわ) garden in summer    
natsu no sono 夏の園(なつのその)park in summer

. niwa suzushi 庭涼い cool garden  


humanity kigo for all summer

ki no eda harau 木の枝払う (きのえだはらう)
cut back the tree branches

..... eda harau 枝払う(えだはらう)cut back branches
..... eda orosu 枝下す(えだおろす)"take away branches"

In summer when the trees start to grow and bring too much darkness to the garden or grow over roofs and windows, they have to cut back. Thus the inside will get more light and the garden feel cooler.


kigo for all autumn

aki no niwa 秋の庭(あきのにわ)garden in autumn
niwa no aki 庭の秋(にわのあき) autumn in the garden
shuuen, shuu-en 秋園 / 秋苑 (しゅうえん)
aki no sono 秋の園(あきのその)park in autumn

hanazono 花園 park with flowers
..... kadan 花壇(かだん)
..... kaho 花圃(かほ)
hanabatake 花畑(はなばたけ)field with flowers
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

not to mix with

ohanabatake, o-hanabatake お花畠 (おはなばたけ)
fields of wild flowers in high mountains

observance kigo for early autumn

. niwa no tategoto 庭の立琴 koto standing in the garden .
..... tategoto 立琴(たてごと)
For the Tanabata Star Festival


kigo for all winter

fuyuniwa 冬庭(ふゆにわ)garden in winter
kanniwa 寒園(かんえん)garden in the cold
niwa karuru 庭枯るる(にわかるる) withering garden
karesono 枯園 かれその withering park
fuyu no sono 冬の園(ふゆのその) park in winter


Expressions like "secret garden" are not kigo,
but TOPIC for haiku.


Haiku and Zen Gardens, a project

The following postings are a transcript of students' responses to our unit on Art and the Ordered Cosmos: Japanese views of nature.
Before completing this assignment, students examined Zen Buddhism and its notion of the transience of the world, Shinto, and their expression in the samurai code of Bushido, "The Peach Orchard" from Dreams by Akira Kurosawa which exemplifies the Shinto notion of nature as alive and as an expression of the Kami while also demonstrating the Zen notion of the transience of beauty and the world, and the Japanese Way of Tea (tea ceremony).
Students also studied Zen gardens and created one in class. Students were required to write a Haiku poem, an art form which attempts to capture some essential aspect of eternity through a single moment in nature. Student postings have not been edited in any way.

one sample poem

The rock buried
still content and quiet
surrounded by friends and light.

© 2000, Assignment from Dr. Vess


buddha’s fingerprint
in the sand...
Zen garden

summer drought —
the Zen garden
in bloom

© Standford Forrester


Compiled by Larry Bole

CLICK for more photos CLICK for more English Links

Rikugien - Japanese Garden 六義園(りくぎえん))

I wrote this on a photograph by
Museki Abe at his Interactive Photo Haiku website:

from one poem to the next
a stony path

The other poems I like that were written for that photo are:

three butterflies enter
the garden formally through
the human gate ~


bamboo fence
unconstrained the garden
comes through

Gillena Cox

"Rikugien is one of Tokyo's most beautiful, Japanese style landscape gardens. Built around 1700 by Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, Rikugien literally means "six poems garden" and reproduces in miniature 88 scenes from famous poems."


Zen garden -
goldfish and maple leaves
the same deep red

© Andre Surridge, 2006 NZ


wind blows plum blossom
far from Kyoto garden
petal falls from vase

- Shared by Deborah Barbour Lundy -
Joys of Japan, 2012


wildlife in my garden
insects flying around
buzz ! skreez ! chirps !

- Shared by Mokhtar Sah Malik -
Joys of Japan, 2012


summer grasses
grow wild in my garden -
I call them weeds

I call my weeds "wild flowers" -
it all depends on the situation

. Gabi Greve, Summer 2012 .
Pondering Haiku


Daruma Pilgrims in Japan

Kigo for Summer

. SAIJIKI ... category EARTH



.. Japan Times said...

Nature naturalized in Japanese gardens

INCOMPARABLE JAPANESE GARDENS, photographs by Gorazd Vilhar, text by Charlotte Anderson. Tokyo: IBC Publishing, 2008, 192 pp., with 159 full-color plates, ¥5,500 (cloth) If we compare the "incomparable," we will discover that the difference of the Japanese garden depends upon the Japanese, very different, attitude toward nature.
Two attitudes toward nature are everywhere possible: you confront it or you accept it. This is illustrated in gardens West and East. In the former (think Versailles), nature is but the rawest of materials to do with as you will. Trees are in ordered ranks, paths are straightened, a form is imposed.

In the latter (see any of the 75 Japanese gardens here beautifully photographed), nature is accepted and adopted as a model. But as Charlotte Anderson tells us in her interesting introduction, one of the earliest garden manuals, the 11th-century "Sakuteki," recommends "looking at nature's most beautiful landscapes for inspiration, yet it advises that a garden should reflect nature, not copy it."

Nature is thus not only accepted, it is also naturalized. Just as the flowers in ikebana ("living flowers") are presumed to be more flowerlike than any natural bloom (even though those seen in ikebana are, having been picked, either dead or dying), so the Japanese garden is to be more natural than nature.

To achieve this desired effect, gardening in Japan reached the unexampled heights that Gorazd Vilhar's photographs well illustrate. At Kyoto's Shinya-in, river stones are laid in a pattern to create the impression of a flowing stream. In Myoman-ji, a Buddhist monk rakes wavelike patterns in the sand of the dry landscape garden. At the Shugaku-in, the view of the distant mountains is appropriated and brought within the focus of the garden design.

From here one may follow the Japanese garden as it mimics Mount Sumeru, the center of the Buddhist world, with its sand-pile reconstruction at Kennin-ji. It is then but a step to later gardens (such as the Koraku-en in Tokyo) that are so crammed with replicas of famous world sights that they seem like some ancestor of Disneyland's "It's a Small World" ride.

Making the garden more natural than nature has its limitations. Anderson tells us of a man-made mountain in the Ritsurin Koen up which workmen with full buckets of water scrambled so that when the lord walked by there would be a splendid waterfall coursing down.

Earlier garden design, however, kept the semblance of nature itself and it is this which is so ably caught on these pages.

Vilhar and Anderson have an impressive repertoire of books doing this — several volumes on Kyoto, one on Tokyo, one on festivals, another on shrine and temple offerings, as well as some beautiful bound postcard collections.

"Beautiful" would be perhaps the word to describe this work, in that Vilhar follows the beaux-arts tradition of creating that which is traditionally pleasing.

To this he adds his own accent, one necessary to all photographers photographing here, the Japanese technique of "selective vision," finding the angle from which the power line, the parked bicycle, the vending machine, are not visible. Wide-angle Japan, showing all the clutter, is not often seen because it is not widely photographed.

Rather, the view is selected, or restricted. Just as the "Sakuteki" counsels a reflection rather than a copying of nature, so, such splendid beaux-art photographs as these, reflect nature naturalized.


Anonymous said...

Zen Landscapes,
by Allen S. Weiss.Reaktion

Much has been written about Japanese gardens, with authors waxing lyrical about the craftsmanship and miniaturization that are often on display. These gardens, however, are much more than mere abstract designs; they are living landscapes that change according the season. “Zen Landscapes: Perspectives on Japanese Gardens and Ceramics” is the first in-depth Western study that looks at the relationship that exists between gardens and ceramics, suggesting new theories of representation and, above all, presenting ideas that may change the way we view such places. With lush color photos of gardens such as Ryoan-ji in Kyoto, the only real complaint is that the accompanying text is perhaps a too dense for most readers — unless you’ve got plenty of time on your hands.