9/14/2007

Shimizu Ryukei

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Buddhist Sculptors Gallery

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Shimizu Ryukei (Shimizu Ryuukei)
仏師 清水隆慶


Shimizu Ryukei I came from a family of Kyoto Buddhist sculptors that lasted for four generations during the Edo period. In his latter years, however, he carved dolls that reflected the social conditions of the time and called them the "mischief of an old man."

Ryukei I (1659- 1732)
Ryukei II (1729-1795)

... Ryuukei IV was the last in line.


© Japan Times / MATTHEW LARKING :

... in fact, the scant interest reflects the conventional thinking that the Edo Period (1603-1867) had no sculpture worth mentioning; religious sculpture deteriorated from the mid 13th-century Kamakura Period and supposedly was not resuscitated until Japan encountered Western forms in the 19th century. Kyoto National Museum's New Year exhibition,
"An Old Man's Mischief: Playful Works by the Buddhist Sculptor Shimizu Ryukei," showing till March 30, provides the opportunity then to reevaluate what's been considered a "minor" period of three-dimensional art.

The rise and fall of religious sculpture was precipitous. Early sculptural works by 11th-century Heian Period sculptor Jocho and the later "Kei" school of Nara had fixed iconographic precedents for subsequent generations of busshi (Buddhist sculptors), suppressing innovation. Later, the forms of Buddhism that gained popularity in the 13th century — the Zen and the Pure Land sects — by their very nature simply required less statuary. Sculpture was still being made, of course, but the art form mattered less.

What Edo sculpture inherited from the Kamakura Period, despite such a gap in time, was a heightened realism, which was used to give human qualities to deities and common folk alike. Hence, a sculptor such as Shimizu Ryukei I (1659- 1732), who made "Five Great Deities of Angry Visage" (1701) under the direction of the renowned head priest of Hozan-ji temple in Nara, Tankai, also crafted secular figurines. These treatments of anonymous or eminent personalities of both the day and history are the pieces on which the Kyoto exhibition concentrates.

Ryukei I, who also assumed the pseudonym Rinko, called such works "The mischief of an old man." He had three followers who took up the style, though the exhibition is restricted to himself and Ryukei II (1729-1795), who went by the name Bishumontei.


CLICK for more photos Ryukei I's pre-eminent work of miniature secularism is "Hundred Figures 百人一衆" (1717), in which dozens of statuettes only centimeters high are arranged on a tiered shelf, street-scene-like. The carefully carved figures show everyday scenes from all walks of life: a child pulls at his mother's arm; an old woman stoops, crooked with age; two men argue; monks beg; samurai guard; and performers perform. The collection is impressive in its understated application of the skills of sacred tradition in portraying the quotidian, secular life.


One work, "Yuima Koji " (18th century), was of significance for the sculptor. Yuima Koji, a wealthy Indian who sought solace in Buddhism, was regarded in China as a paragon of virtue. His popularity here stemmed from the balance he made between disengagement with worldly attachments and family responsibility, a trait highly valued in the country. Ryukei I himself tried to closely follow Koji's example.

A more strikingly contemporary piece was Ryukei I's "Skull" (1689). Marginally smaller than life size, it achieves a supreme realism and anatomical perfection. On close inspection, it becomes apparent that the surface is inscribed with kanji, indicating its use as a reference for acupuncture. As well, the lower jaw is linked to the upper by string, and therefore it is movable.

Among the portraits Ryukei I made of people of his day, "Portrait of Chiku-o" portrays a well-known Jorurui performer (a singer of narratives for Japanese puppetry) who lived in Osaka in the early Edo Period.


"Portrait of Chiku-o" (18th century)
COURTESY OF THE KYOTO NATIONAL MUSEUM


Ryukei II followed his predecessor's lead with an emphasis on the small and unassuming, but he also carved historical figures of great stature, such as the legendary master of tea in "Portrait of Sen no Rikyu" (18th century). In "The priest Saigyo looking at Mount Fuji " (18th century), the acclaimed poet leans on his staff, directing a small smile skyward.

The essential context of these Lilliputian works becomes apparent in comparison with an array of earlier, historically important sculptures in the exhibition such as the "Monju Bosatsu " (13th century) from Konkaikomyo-ji temple in Kyoto. Monju — shown seated in a lotus saddle on a lion and clasping a sword symbolizing the dispersal of the clouds of ignorance — was regarded as the wisest of the bodhisattva; in person, the physical size of the deity dwarves both the works of Ryukei and visitors.

While these colorful little wood works will likely do nothing to overturn the conventional view of the decline in Japanese sculpture after the Kamakura Period, they do clear away some of the fogginess that has conventionally blanketed Edo Period works. And luckily, the shift to the depiction of the secular that they represent did not lead to a corresponding dullness in the art.


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Quote from the Kyoto National Museum


What names in which age come to mind when the words "Buddhist sculptor" (J., busshi) are heard? In Japan, many may first think of masters such as Kuratsukuri no Tori (known commonly as "Tori Busshi," n.d.) of the Asuka period (552-645), Jocho (d. 1057) of the Heian period (794-1185), and Unkei (d. 1223) and Kaikei (act. early 13th century) of the Kamakura period (1185-1333).

Researchers specializing in Buddhist sculpture would likely come up with the same answer. However, information on early modern Buddhist sculptors varies because extensive research on their works has yet to be conducted. Nonetheless, in recent years, Buddhist sculptors of the Edo period (1615-1868) and the images they carved have gradually begun to attract attention.

This exhibition focuses on the Edo-period Buddhist sculptor Shimizu Ryukei, who was active in Kyoto and whose name was used for four generations. On exhibit will be works by Ryukei I (1659-1732), who assumed the pseudonym Rinkoo 麟岡 , and Ryukei II (1729-1795), who also went by the name Bishumontei 毘首門亭 (making fun of the name of the deity Bishamonten).


Datail: "Hundred Figures 百人一衆" (1717)

Rather than Buddhist statues, this exhibition highlights genre dolls, which might be called a carver's hobby. Ryukei I himself referred to this avocation as "an old man's mischief." Perhaps he felt self-conscious that he created worldly objects using the same skills that he used to carve sacred images. However, compared to Buddhist statues that must be sculpted according to strict iconographic and technical rules and standards, Ryukei playfully and expressively created these figurines and demonstrated his abilities to the utmost. Come enjoy the mischief of these Edo-period Kyoto sculpters.
「老いらくのてんごう(老人のいたずら)」

© Kyoto National Museum

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Fudo Myo-O
Museum of the temple Jofuku-Ji

First it was thought that this statue had been made by the sculpor Tankai 仏師湛海
Hozan Tankai (Hoozan Tankai) 宝山湛海(1629~ 1716). But latest research has found that he had Ryukei make it instead.



© jofukuji/homotsukan



清水隆慶 ... Reference in Japanese


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. Koofukuji 興福寺 Temple Kofuku-Ji Nara .
Statue of Yuima


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