9/24/2011

Kotoamatsukami zooka

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Kotoamatsukami 別天津神

The three deities of creation.

zooka no sanshin 造化の三神
(sanjin)




The three deities of creation and two more on the far sides:

Umashiashikabihikoji no kami 宇摩志阿斯詞備比古遅神
Amenotokotachi no kami 天之常立神
source : risouen


quote
Kotoamatsukami
"Separate heavenly kami," a name referring to the first five kami appearing in the Kojiki. The five include the "three kami of creation" (zōka sanshin), namely
Amenominakanushi no kami,
Takamimusuhi, and
Kamimusuhi no kami,

together with Umashiashikabihikoji no kami and
Amenotokotachi no kami.
The term "separate heavenly kami" originates in Kojiki itself, which states, "The foregoing five kami are the separate heavenly kami." These five kami are characterized by the fact that they came into existence alone (hitorigami), and after coming into being, "hid" themselves. The term kotoamatsukami is not found in Nihongi.
source : Inoue Nobutaka, Kokugakuin 2005


. . . . .

In Japanese Shinto, Kotoamatsukami (別天津神, literally means "distinguishing heavenly kami") is the collective name for the first powers which came into existence at the time of the creation of the universe. They were born in Takamagahara, the world of Heaven at the time of the creation, as Amenominakanushi 天御中主 (Central master), Takamimusubi (High creation), Kamimusubi (Divine creation), and a bit later Umashiashikabihikoji (Energy) and Amenotokotachi (Heaven).

These forces then became gods and goddesses, the tenzai shoshin (heavenly kami) - Ame no minakanushi no kami; Takami-musubi no ôkami; Kamimusubi no ôkami; Umashiashikabihikoji no kami; Ame no Tokotachi no kami; Kuni no Tokotachi no kami; Toyokumono no kami; Uhijini no mikoto; Suhijini no kami; Tsunokuhi no kami; Ikukuhi no kami; Ôtonoji no kami; Ôtonobe no kami; Omodaru no kami; Kashikone no kami; Izanagi no kami; Izanami no kami; and Amaterasu ômikami.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Ame no minaka nushi no kami
天之御中主神(あめのみなかぬしのかみ)
- 至高の神


Takamimusuhi no kami 高御産巣日神
(たかみむすひのかみ)
- 征服や統治の神


Kami musuhi no kami 神産巣日神(かみむすひのかみ)
- 生産の神




source : facebook

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Amenominakanushi
the first kami to come into being in the Plain of Heaven as a "solitary kami" (hitorigami). He was acknowledged as one of the zōka sanshin ("three kami of creation") and one of the five kotoamatsukami ("separate heavenly deities").
Amenominakanushi
is found at the very beginning of the Kojiki. Amenominakanushi was chief kami of the seven major stars of the constellation Ursa Major. As a result of this influence, Amenominakanushi was made a central deity at the Daikyōin in the early Meiji period. He was also worshipped within sectarian Shinto (kyōha Shintō ).


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quote
Amenominakanushi
Other names: Ame no minakanushi no mikoto(Nihongi)

According to certain of the myths relating the unfolding of heaven and earth, Amenominakanushi was the first kami to come into being in the Plain of Heaven as a "solitary kami" (hitorigami), and to hide his presence. Also counted as one of the zōka sanshin ("three kami of creation") and one of the five kotoamatsukami ("separate heavenly deities"). Amenominakanushi is found at the very beginning of Kojiki, while only appearing in an alternate version within the fourth "alternate writing" quoted in Nihongi.

No mention is made of this kami's activities, and he was not worshiped at any known ancient shrines, with the result that he is considered by some as a kami of abstract character and produced under the influence of Chinese thought.
Kogo shūi states that Takamimusuhi, Kamimusuhi, and Tsuhayamusuhi no kami were all offspring of Amenominakanushi, while Shoku nihongi claims that he was ancestral kami of the Nakatomi clan, and fragmentary records of the Ise no kuni fudoki state that his twelfth-generation descendant was Amenohiwake no mikoto; Shinsen shōjiroku likewise claims him as one of the ancestral deities of certain naturalized clans.

Until the medieval era, Nihongi was considered preeminent to Kojiki, and reference to Amenominakanushi was solely in terms of his role as one of the primeval kami. As students of National Learning (Kokugaku) began to place greater emphasis on Kojiki, however, Amenominakanushi came to be more widely appreciated, and his significance was reevaluated. Hirata Atsutane, in particular, propounded a theology wherein Amenominakanushi was chief kami of the seven major stars of the constellation Ursa Major. As a result of this influence, Amenominakanushi was made a central deity at the Daikyōin in the early Meiji period, and he was worshiped within sectarian Shinto (kyōha Shintō ) as well. During the process of separation of Shinto and Buddhist objects of worship (see shinbutsu bunri), the deity Myoken (the north star) was changed to Amenominakanushi at many shrines.
source : Mori Mizue, Kokugakuin 2005



尊星王像
source : takahashi_hideharu



. Suitengu 水天宮 Shrine for the Water God .
Deity in residence is
Amenominakanushi no kami 天之御中主神
Ame no minaka nushi no kami / 天御中主神



. at shrine Hoshida Jinja 星田神社 Osaka .
Komatsu Jinja 小松神社


. Aoso Jinja 青麻神社 "Green Hemp Shrine" .
Sendai, Miyagi
- Deities in residence:
Amaterasu Omikami 天照大御神 (the sun goddess),
Ame no Minakanushi no Kami 天之御中主神 (the god of the universe), and
Tsukuyomi no Kami 月読神 (the god of the moon)
. . . . hereby the shrine is famous as the place where the sun, the stars and the moon are enshrined together.



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quote
Takamimusuhi
Other names: Takamimusuhi no mikoto(Nihongi),Takagi no kami (Kojiki)

A central kami included in Kojiki's "three kami of creation" (zōka sanshin), and one of the five "separate heavenly kami" (kotoamatsukami). A solitary kami that comes into being after Amenominakanushi, and then "hides away," Takamimusuhi later reappears, together with Amaterasu, as one of the central kami of the Plain of High Heaven (Takamanohara).

Takamimusuhi assembled the conference of heavenly kami that conferred regarding the Descent of the Heavenly Grandchild (tenson kōrin), and he also selected and dispatched messengers to the Central Land of Reed Plains (Ashihara no Nakatsukuni) for the purpose of negotiating for the "transfer of the land" (kuniyuzuri).

Takamimusuhi's daughter was Yorozuhatahime, who in turn was the mother of Ninigi no mikoto; according to the main text of Nihongi, it was imperial ancestor Takamimusuhi no mikoto who invested Ninigi as ruler of the Central Land of Reed Plains. At the time of the descent of the heavenly grandchild, Omoikane and other descendants of Takamimusuhi were assigned to accompany Ninigi upon his descent. Takamimusuhi also sent a large crow (yatakarasu) as aid during Jinmu's eastern expedition, in this and other ways giving protection to the descendants of the heavenly kami. Nihongi notes that in preparation for his enthronement (sokui), Jinmu himself served in the role of priest-medium and took on the identity of Takamimusuhi, who was also later made one of the eight kami served by the priests of the imperial Department of Kami (Jingikan).

Takamimusuhi was also claimed by numerous clans as founding ancestor. The tradition transmitted by Kogo shūi describes Takamimusuhi as the eldest of Amanominakanushi's three children, calling him Sumemutsukamurogi no mikoto, and identifying him as ancestor of the Tomo and Saeki clans. In later ages, Takamimusuhi was also worshiped as a god of matchmaking, based on the association of the musuhi (or musubi) in his name with the same word meaning "to join."
source : Mori Mizue, 2005


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quote
Kamimusuhi
Other names: Kamimusuhi no kami, Kamimusuhi no mioya no kami, Kamimusuhi no mikoto(Kojiki. Nihongi)

According to Kojiki, one of the three kami of creation (zōka sanshin), and classed as one of the "separate heavenly kami" (kotoamatsukami). Kamimusuhi came into being after Takamimusuhi as the third of the five solitary kami (hitorigami), and her presence was not visible. After Ōgetsuhime was murdered by Susanoo, Kamimusuhi, under the name of the mother deity Mioya no mikoto, transformed the grains produced from Ōgetsuhime's body into seed, thus becoming known as the "ancestral deity" of the five grains (see sojin).

While a heavenly deity (amatsukami), Kamimusuhi has strong links to the earthly deities (kunitsukami) of the Izumo tradition, and when Ōnamuchi was burned to death by his brothers, she granted the wish of Ōnamuchi's mother by restoring him to life; Kamimusuhi's child Sukunahikona later assisted Ōnamuchi with the development of the land.

Finally, when Ōkuninushi was enshrined as a condition for the "transfer of the land" (kuniyuzuri), the invocation of Kushiyatama initiating Ōkuninushi's worship included the name "Kamimusuhi no mioya no mikoto." These are the general details transmitted by Kojiki, which includes detailed episodes of the Izumo myths. Nihongi, on the other hand, describes Kamimusuhi only in an "alternate writing" relating the unfolding of heaven and earth, and elsewhere once as the parent of Takuhatachijihime (see Yorozuhatahime). Kogo shūi describes Kamimusuhi as the third child of Amenominakanushi, and the ancestor of the Ki clan.

Based both on the fact that Shinsen shōjiroku describes Kamimusuhi as ancestor of numerous Izumo-related clans, and on the fact that the Izumo fudoki transmits the legend of Kamosu no mikoto, some people have theorized that Kamimusuhi was actually a kami of the Izumo lineage. On the other hand, the mythos also relates that Sukunahikona and Yorozuhatahime were the offspring of Takamimusuhi, and given that mioya is a title attached primarily to female kami, it is likely that Kamimusuhi was anciently considered the spouse of the heavenly deity Takamimusuhi.

Kamimusuhi has strong links to the heavenly kami in other ways as well, as evidenced by her status as first in rank among the eight kami served by the priests of the Jingikan, and the fact that she is treated as a heavenly kami in the "spirit pacification" ritual of chinkonsai.
source : Mori Mizue, 2005


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zooka, zouka, zōka is also a word used by Matsuo Basho in his haiku theory.
(zooka has a long oo to pronounce properly.)

Basho said

. Oi no Kobumi "Knapsack Notebook" .
Saigyo’s waka, Sogi’s renga, Sesshu’s painting, Rikyu’s tea ceremony – one thread runs through the artistic Ways. And this artistic spirit is to follow zoka, to be a companion to the turning of the four seasons. Nothing one sees is not a flower, nothing one imagines is not the moon. If what is seen is not a flower, one is like a barbarian; if what is imagined is not a flower, one is like a beast. Depart from the barbarian, break away from the beast,
follow zoka, return to zoka.
Tr. Barnhill

造化にしたがひ 造化に帰れ.
"Follow the zooka, return to the zooka."

shizen no chikara, zooka no chikara 自然の力(造化の力)
- the power of the spontaneous, the power of zooka
in
造花随順 zooka zuijun.

shizen  in the times of Basho referred to the "natural, spontaneous state" of things.

- - - - - Basho wrote:
“I saw the masterwork of zôka in the beautiful scenes of mountains, fields and the coast, and following the footprints of devoted travelers who are free of worldly concerns, I came to know the way of a true artist.”
(Kôhon Bashô zenshû, 6:85)
In this passage zôka is not the landscape per se but what has bought it into being; this concept finds its philosophical roots in Daoist thought.
source : Peipei-Qiu - simply-haiku-2011

- - - - - Basho wrote:
"The singular peaks and grotesque mountains vie with each other in their shapes, forming a hair-like dark line and a glimpse of faint green as in a painting. The sounds of the water, the singing of birds, and the green of pines and cedars are extremely exquisite—the beautiful scene demonstrates the perfection of artistry.
How could one not feel joyous for the great accomplishment of zôka!"

- - - - - Peipei-Qiu wrote:
Bashô joyfully sees the beauty of the landscape as the marvelous work of zôka and emphasizes that following zôka—constantly immersing oneself in the embrace of nature, appreciating its beauty, and following its course—is the essential way to maintain aesthetic sensibilities.

By saying that those who follow zôka see nothing but flowers and think of nothing but the moon, Bashô frames the grand premise that following zôka is the precondition of artistic perception: when one follows zôka, one has the artistic sensibility to capture beauty in everything.
His call for “returning to zôka” further suggests that zôka is not only where artistic creativity begins but its ultimate attainment.

It needs to be reiterated that by zôka Bashô does not mean “nature,” as it often has been used in the English translation of Oi no kobumi, but refers instead to a concept derived from the Daoist classics, in which zaohua/zôka, together with ziran (J. shizen 自然 or ji’nen, naturalness and spontaneity), designates the spontaneous operation of the Dao, and sometimes refers to the Dao itself.

source : Basho-and-the-Dao -Peipei-Qiu

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(In English, the misleading spelling zoka is sometimes used.)

zoka, joka 序歌 a waka poem which is read first
zooka, zakka 雑歌 miscellaneous poems

. Chinese background of Japanese Haiku .


quote
Bashō regards kidai as a way to commune with the creative power of nature (zōka). Bashō does not regard kidai as a rule, but rather as a word or keyword establishing a relationship with kokoro (heart, mind).
... Basho also has said, “Even if the word is not traditional kidai, in the case that the word has enough quality to be kidai, do choose it and use it. When you find a new kidai, it will be a great gift for the next generation” (Kyoraishō).
source : Yūki Itō, with Richard Gilbert



reference : zooka




quote
In Yamaoka Genrin's pioneering haibun anthology the Daoism-influenced concept of Japanese zoka (Chinese: Zaohua) already had been given fundamental importance in the creation of haikai:
"If we trust all to the endless power of zoka."

For further info. read Chapter Five,
Following Zoka and Returning to Zoka,
of Basho and the Dao:
the Zhuangzi and the transformation of Haikai

by Peipei Qiu.

source : Chen-ou Liu, Canada


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Michael F. Marra :
The Japanese meaning of a thing, for example, differs greatly from the Western world's understanding of the term.
In the Western educational system, a thing is "something."
Writes Marra,
"Things, the fact that they are (or not), and their articulation in words are definitely central elements in meaning formations."
Marra goes on to say,

"That Japanese languages have two words that are translated as thing:
koto and mono". . .
expertness or absorption in thoughts cannot exist aside from their being (to be an expert or to be absorbed in thoughts) and that such a being is nothing but the koto that makes the movement and the condition of action possible. Whereas mono indicates the content of movement or the content of quietness, koto indicates their being.
The specific being of the content (mono) always presupposes its existence or Being (koto).
The fact (koto) of seeing presupposes that something (mono) must be seen."
source : simplyhaiku.webs.com


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David Landis Barnhill :

In the West we normally think of nature as a collection of things: trees, toads, rocks, etc. Or we may think of it as a place, such as a wilderness area. Zōka, which I translate as “the Creative,” does not refer to either of those. It is the vitality and creativity of nature, its tendency and ability to undergo beautiful and marvelous transformations. It is not a place or collection of things, nor is it something outside nature that is directing it or bringing things into being—thus the translation of “the Creator” is misleading.
Zōka is the ongoing, continuous self-transforming creativity of the natural world.
...
I think Bashō would argue for the inclusion of season words, certainly for the seasonality of haiku poetry in general. A moment in nature is always a moment in a particular season. To really see nature is to see it in a particular season. Of course American haiku is free to evolve according to its own insights, but we should realize how important seasonality is in Japanese poetry and why it is important.
...
But then each religion is itself a mixture.
Zen Buddhism, of course, is highly influenced by Daoism. Neo-Confucianism brings together classical Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. Shinto and Buddhism co-existed and intermingled for most of the last thousand years.
...
The natural/highly cultured poet knows the tradition and knows the old poems and the rules, because they (supposedly) reflect and direct the way to see reality and nature deeply. But you also have to lose yourself.
...
I see infused in Basho's poetry a conglomerate of belief systems that include, besides Zen Buddhism, other sects of Buddhism (Pure Land, etc.), Daoism, Confucianism, Shinto, and shamanic animism practiced by the Ainu.
...
Americans are familiar with about 200 or so of Bashō’ haiku – mostly those in the Imagist tradition.
source : simplyhaiku 2011

The Creative in Basho's View of Nature and Art


For more translations of hokku :
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

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Haruo Shirane :
Following the creative
The notion of pursuing the 'truth of poetic art' was closely related to zōka, zuijun, 'following the Creative,' an ideal found in Chinese painting theory. Zōka (tsao hua), the Creator or the Creative, sometimes misleadingly translated as 'Nature,' was not a transcendent, anthropomorphic deity (as usually suggested by the term 'creator') but a 'creative spirit' or force that constantly shapes and transforms landscape and nature.
... literally, that which makes things ... the creative force that gave birth to and governs the movement of all things in the universe ...
Basho wrote with regard to the zōka, the Creavive.
Those who practice such arts follow the Creative
and make the four seasons their friends.

source : Traces of Dreams

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. Myooken Bosatsu 妙見菩薩 Myoken .
Star Shrines, Hoshi Jinja 星神社


O-Fudo Sama Gallery



. shinbutsu 神仏 kami to hotoke .
shinbutsu shūgō 神仏習合 syncretism - shinbutsu bunri 神仏分離 separation


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Kigo and Zooka, zōka 造化 (zoka), the creative force
The creative force was an important abstract aspect of hokku since Matsuo Basho.
Kigo, on the other hand, are a real-life tool to be used when composing traditional Japanese hokku and haiku.

. Kigo use in worldwide haiku .


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1 comment:

Gabi Greve said...

zooka before breakfast :

asa-meshi mae -
I write a short note
for a friend


asa-meshi mae 朝飯前  is a Japanese expression, meaning done with great ease and simple, well, to be done before breakfast, so to speak .