12/16/2012

Medicine in Edo

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. - - - Welcome to Edo 江戸 ! - - - .

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under construction


Medicine in Edo

and the illness of Matsuo Basho

In the times before the advent of modern western medicine, Asia relied heavily on the use of traditional remedies, medical plants and minerals and then prayers to the various deities !

. Chinese Medicine 漢方 .
medicine from China, kanpoo, kanpooyaku 漢方薬
- - - biwayootoo 枇杷葉湯 (びわようとう) biwa yootoo, biwa yoto
drink from dried loquat leaves


Later many young doctors went to Nagasaki to study
. Dutch learning 蘭學 / 蘭学 rangaku .
science from
oranda オランダ / 阿蘭陀 Holland


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. Yakushi Nyorai, the Buddha of Medicine 薬師如来 .
The Buddha of Healing

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. isha 医者, ishi 医師 doctors in Edo .

a growing list

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Anatomical illustrations from Edo-period Japan



Here is a selection of old anatomical illustrations that provide a unique perspective on the evolution of medical knowledge in Japan during the Edo period (1603-1868).

LOOK at them all here :
- source : pinktentacle.com

Nihon Iryō Bunkashi 日本医療文化史
History of Japanese Medical Culture
Shibunkaku Publishing, 1989

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goyaku sanbyoo 御役三病 The three most feared diseases in Edo were

hashika 麻疹 measles
suitoo 水痘 / 水套 chicken pox
tennentoo 天然痘 / toosoo 痘瘡 smallpox, variola




- www.yamamoto-museum.com


. Smallpox and the color RED .

為朝と疱瘡神
Minamoto no Tametomo and the God of Smallpox


. Red Amulets to protect Children .


Imo no Kami 痘瘡の神 the deity of smallpox

月に名を包みかねてや痘瘡の神
tsuki ni na o tsutsumi kanete ya imo no kami

the name of the moon
wrapped in a double meaning -
God of Smallpox

Tr. Gabi Greve

Matsuo Basho, written in 1689, on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month.
元禄2年8月15日. Oku no Hosomichi, in Tsuruga, near Yu no O Tooge 湯尾峠 Yunoo Toge pass.


shrine for the God of Smallpox at the Pass


At the tea house of the pass, near the shrine, they sold amulets against smallpox.
This was also the full moon night (IMO meigetsu) when people eat taro potatoes (sato IMO).
So this is a pun with the sound IMO, since the kanji for smallpox 疱瘡 is usually read HOOSOO, but can be read IMO.

. Matsuo Basho and the Kami deities of Japan .


Oku no Hosomichi - - - - Station 41 - Tsuruga 敦賀 - - -
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

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江戸時代の医者
source : www.gakken.co.jp

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. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


町医師や屋敷方より駒迎へ
machi ishi ya yashikigata yori koma mukae

the doctor of the town -
from a samurai mansion they come
picking him up with a horse


Written in 延宝3年, Basho age 32.
In the times of Basho, the "doctor of the town" did not have a very high reputation. Here Basho makes fun of the low position of these doctors.
The samurai lived in yashiki 屋敷 mansions, but it could be just a poor residence.


There is also this famous kigo, related to
. WKD : koma mukae 駒迎え "picking up the horses" .
aki no komabiki 秋の駒牽 selecting horses in autumn
observance kigo for mid-autumn

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薬飲むさらでも霜の枕かな
kusuri nomu sarademo shimo no makura kana

I drink some medicine
but there is still frost
on my pillow


Written abound the 22nd (25th) day of the 11th lunar month, 1687.
During his travelings, Basho was ill at the home of his disciple Kitoo 起倒 / 欄木起倒 Atsuta.
Basho had a chronic illness of his stomach and Kito went out to buy some medicine for him.
This hokku shows the feeling of loneliness and desperation of Basho when traveling alone and depending on the kindness of others.

shimo no makura is another expression for the pillow of a traveller, like the "kusamakura" grass pillow.


. Oi no Kobumi 笈の小文 .

. makura - the pillow of Matsuo Basho .

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水無月は腹病やみの暑さかな
minazuki wa fukubyoo yami no atsusa kana

the sixth lunar month
is a time for stomach illness
with its great heat . . .


or

the sixth lunar month
with its great heat
is a time for stomach illness . . .


another version was

昼はなほ腹病煩の暑さかな
hiru wa nao fukubyoo yami no atsusa kana

midday with its great heat is a time for stomach illness . . .


written in 1693, sixth lunar month - 元禄4年6月 (now July/August)
This hokku has the cut marker KANA at the end of line 3.

It seems Basho is not contrasting the great heat with a great fever but is really suffering from some kind of chronic stomach illness.



. minazuki 水無月 (みなづき) sixth lunar month .
lit. "month without water", the great heat before the typhoons of autumn arrive.
now from about July 7 to August 7
kigo for late summer

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source : basyo.okunohosomichi.net

薬欄にいづれの花を草枕
yakuran ni izure no hana o kusamakura

from your medicine garden
which flower should I take
to stuff in my pillow?


Written on the 8th day of the 7th lunar month at the home of a doctor in Echigo Takada, Hosokawa Shun-an 細川春庵, haiku name Toosetsu 棟雪 Tosetsu, who had planted a lot of medicinal herbs in his estate.
One can imagine Basho and the doctor walking along the garden path, looking at all the herbs and Shun-an explaining their curing effect.
This is a greeting hokku to his host.
The season is autumn, but no special kigo is mentioned.


Oku no Hosomichi 奥の細道 - - - Station 33 - Echigo 越後路 - - -
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .




花薬欄 is also a koan in Zen Buddhism, used by Master Unmon 雲門, Hekigan Roku Nr. 39 碧巌録.
source : www.rinnou.net


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煩へば餅をも喰はず桃の花
. wazuraeba mochi o mo kuwazu momo no hana .
I am so ill ...



旅に病んで夢は枯野をかけ廻る
. tabi ni yande yume wa kareno o kakemeguru .
ill on the road
the Death Hokku of Matsuo Basho

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


芭蕉の持病について
source : www.bashouan.com/pn


more TBA
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How to wrap powder medicine in Edo
A small square sheet of paper was usually folded into a triangle.
sankaku 三角 triangle


Look at the full process :
source : www.geocities.jp/wom38/tane_tutumi


. tsurushibina つるし雛 / 吊るし雛 small hanging hina dolls .



A small triangle was added with the wish that the girl would grow up healthy and never be in need of medicine. Bad luck should be folded into the triangle and never come out again.
This was one of the easy-to-make figures and could even be made by hand by elder sisters.


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Ishinboo 医心方 Ishinbo (ancient medical book)
- Heian Period, 12th c.
- Classified as a National Treasure of Japan
東京国立博物館 (Tokyo National Museum)

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. - - - Welcome to Edo 江戸 ! .


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6 comments:

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

medicine in Edo

. akagaeru uri 赤蛙売り selling red frogs (medicine for children) .
- akahikigan 赤蛙丸 "red frog medicine"
.
. biwa yootoo uri 枇杷葉湯売り selling biwa leaves as medicine .
.
. joozai uri 定斎売り selling Josai medicine .
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kusuri-uri 薬売り all kinds of medicine vendors
.
http://edoflourishing.blogspot.jp/2013/11/business-in-edo.html

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

.
chuujoo 中条 doctors specializing in abortion
中条流女医者
.
nakoodo isha 仲人医者 doctors as matchmakers for marriage
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Gabi Greve said...

Matsuo Basho

薬のむさらでも霜の枕かな
kusuri nomu sarademo shimo no makura kana

I drink some medicine
but there is still frost
on my pillow
.
Memorial stone
Shimoyozuka 霜夜塚 "Memorial stone of a frosty night"
.
at henro temple 44
菅生山 Sugozan  大覚院 Daikaku-in  大寶寺 / 大宝寺 Daiho-Ji
愛媛県浮穴郡久万高原町菅生1173 /
.
http://gokurakuparadies.blogspot.jp/2015/02/daiho-ji-shikoku-44.html
.

Gabi Greve said...

The specialist for treatment of sword cuts
by Markus Sesko

. . . kinsô’i (金創医) that referred to “physicians” who were specialized in the treatment of incised wounds in general and of arrow wounds and sword cuts in particular.
. . . a medical service statute, the ishitsu-ryô (医疾令)
. . . court physicians (ten’yaku-ryô, 典薬寮)
.
Eye surgery as seen in the late Heian to early Kamakura period picture scroll Yamai no Sôshi (病草紙).
.
Taihô and Yôrô Codes. In these codes, it was distinguished between internal medicine (tairyô, 体療), surgery (sôshu, 創腫), pediatrics (shôshô, 少小), obstetrics (jo’i, 女医), otorhinolaryngology (jimoku-kushi, 耳目口歯), acupuncture (hari, 鍼・針), massage (anma, 按摩), charm healing (jugon, 咒禁), and herb farming (yaku’en, 薬園).
.
. . . since the Nanbokuchô period, there were now “real specialists” like the haremono-ishi (腫物医師, tumor surgeon), the kizu-ishi (疵医師, general wound surgeon), and the kinsô’i (金創医) and no longer just “surgeons” who performed all surgeries.
.
. . . from Muromachi-eriod records that persons injured by sword cuts were treated with medicine taken internally, e.g. ginseng, Ligusticum wallichii, or peony roots, and that bleeding was stopped by sprinkling powdered resins with names like shôroku (松緑), furuse-ma (古瀬麻), or kirinketsu (麒麟血) onto wounds.
.
details are here
https://markussesko.wordpress.com/2015/03/27/the-specialist-for-treatment-of-sword-cuts/
.

Gabi Greve said...

Edo Edo Edo
sokuriki 足力 "strong legs" massage
sokuriki anma 足力按摩 / 足力あんま massage with the feet


A kind of massage with the feet, by stepping on the back and kicking the patient.

anma 按摩 Amma massage
.
http://edoflourishing.blogspot.jp/2013/12/chin-shoobai-business.html
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Gabi Greve said...

福田安典 Fukuda Yasunori
『医学書のなかの「文学」 江戸の医学と文学が作り上げた世界』
(笠間書院)

http://kasamashoin.jp/2016/09/201692.html
.